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Biology 384: Marine Mammalogy_Spring 2016: Home

Research guide to facilitate student research papers and student led discussion activity on marine mammal conservation topics for Dr. Heidi Pearson's Biology 384: Marine Mammalogy course.

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Find Books (e-book versions of required and recommended course textbooks available at Egan Library.  Login with UAS username/password)

Find Articles 

Literature in the Sciences (info about peer-review process and primary/secondary sources



Evaluating Information Sources

Regardless of where you are looking for information it’s essential that you critically evaluate the information to determine if it’s a good match for your needs.  You probably do this already.  For example, when scanning through search results, whether in a library database or Google, you inherently make decisions on which article to read or which site to visit based on a very quick primary assessment of the results.  Another way to go about this process is by applying the CRAAP Test.


Currency: The timeliness of the information.

⇒ When was the information published or posted?

Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs.

⇒ Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?

Authority: The source of the information.

⇒ What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations?

⇒ Is the author qualified to write on the topic?

Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness and correctness of the content.

⇒ Is the information supported by evidence?

⇒ Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?

⇒ Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?

⇒ Are there spelling, grammar or typographical errors?

Purpose: The reason the information exists.

⇒ Is its purpose to inform, teach, sell, entertain or persuade?

⇒ Is the information fact, opinion or propaganda?

⇒ Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases?

Need help?

We're here to help you in the research process! You can contact Jonas or visit/contact the Egan Library reference desk anytime.

Egan Library Website