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Egan Library's Teaching & Learning Program developed the Information Literacy Outcomes below based on the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education.The outcomes below represent an interconnected, complex, multi-layered set of skills, mastered over time and in a variety of contexts (including, but not limited to, credit-bearing Library Science courses, course-integrated information literacy workshops, and one-on-one consultations). Integral to each outcome are not only the cognitive but affective components of information literacy, particularly the abilities to adapt, persist, be creative, and manage ambiguity, while acknowledging the social, cultural, political, and economic dimensions of research. Faculty librarians draw from these outcomes to tailor class and assignment-specific outcomes in collaboration with discipline faculty. Though presented linearly, this format is not intended to imply progression.
Research as Inquiry
Research is an iterative, ongoing process of discovery and depends upon asking increasingly complex and/or new questions, which in turn develop additional questions or lines of inquiry.
- Value intellectual curiosity in developing questions and consider research as open ended exploration and engagement with information
- Formulate questions of an appropriate scope based on information gaps, curiosity, and/or reexamination of existing, possibly conflicting, information.
- Select research methods that suit the information need, context, and type of inquiry.
Information has Value
Information possesses several dimensions of value, including as a commodity, as a means of education, as a means to influence, and as a means of negotiating and understanding the world. The flow of information through systems of production and dissemination is affected by legal, sociopolitical, cultural, and economic interests.
- Respect the original ideas of others:
- Give credit to original ideas through proper attribution and citation.
- Understand the power or economic value of information
- Recognize intellectual property as a legal and social construct that varies by culture and privileges certain voices while marginalizing others.
Searching as Strategic Exploration
Searching is the contextualized, nonlinear process of identifying potentially relevant sources, accessing those sources, and employing divergent search methods and strategies as new understanding develops.
- Design and refine search strategies as necessary (including browsing, intentional searching, or use of search tools) and seek guidance from experts such as librarians, researchers, and professionals:
- Develop search strategies based on the information need and research context.
- Select tools, resources, and services based on the information need and research context.
- Revise search strategies and resource selection to incorporate new information and/or adapt to changes in the scope of inquiry.
Scholarship is a Conversation
Communities of scholars, researchers, and professionals engage in sustained discourse over time, with new insights and discoveries arising as the result of different perspectives and interpretations.
- Seek out conversations taking place in their research area
- Articulate the contributions particular information sources make within an ongoing scholarly conversation.
- Contribute to the scholarly conversation at an appropriate level, situating ideas in relation to pre-existing communities of knowledge and practice.
Information Creation as a Process
Information in any format is produced to convey a particular message, shared via a selected delivery method, and deemed relevant according to particular needs and contexts. The underlying processes of researching, creating, revising, and disseminating information vary, and the resulting product reflects these differences.
- Match an information need with an appropriate resource:
- Articulate the distinguishing characteristics of various processes of information creation as well as their capabilities and constraints.
- Connect specific information needs to relevant, credible sources based on the audience, context, and purpose of information creation processes and their resulting formats.
Authority is Constructed and Contextual
Information resources reflect their creators’ expertise and credibility and are evaluated in accordance with how various communities recognize and confer authority. Authority is best approached with an attitude of informed skepticism and an openness to new perspectives, emerging voices, and changes in schools of thought.
- Understand the importance of evaluating information and demonstrates self-awareness of individual biases:
- Identify markers of authority such as subject expertise, societal position, and/or special experience, with an understanding of how those markers apply in different contexts.
- Evaluate authoritative information based on the information need and research context.